Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in plastic bottles and inner coating of beverage cans, and its exposure is almost ubiquitous. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has previously reviewed the use of BPA in food contact materials four times. It has now reviewed BPA for the fifth time and has at last settled on a final version of the new BPA opinion. But we don’t yet know what the EFSA Panel has decided since the opinion is undergoing final editorial work and will not be published until sometime in January 2015.
From the initial draft we know that EFSA believes that exposure to BPA is likely to adversely affect the kidney, liver and mammary glands and possibly also the reproductive, nervous, immune, metabolic and cardiovascular systems. It might also pose a risk for development of cancer.
Quite a list of negative effects you would think. But only at very high exposure levels, EFSA said.
Reduced tolerable levels proposed
To be brave EFSA proposes that the tolerable daily intake of BPA should be reduced to 5 µg/kg bodyweight from previously 50 µg/kg bodyweight. This allows EFSA to claim that the health risk for any population group is low. It is because the highest estimates for combined oral and non-oral exposure to BPA now would be 3-5 times lower than the proposed limit, depending on the age group.
Not everyone agreed with the EFSA view as evidenced by stakeholders submitting almost 500 comments during online public consultations of the draft opinion. Comments were received from a broad range of interested parties including NGOs, members of the public, academia, national food safety agencies and the food industry ranging from positive to negative. Predictably, industry thought that the draft opinion went too far, while some NGOs wanted an outright ban.
So a good compromise you would think. Not so sure.
The Americans and the French at opposing ends
The Americans are relaxed as usual. Just days before the adoption of the EFSA opinion, the Food and Drug Administration issued a statement saying that BPA is safe at current levels. The FDA said its verdict was based on a four-year review of more than 300 scientific studies. However, it mentioned three ongoing safety assessments and said that the agency might revise its conclusions pending their findings. A bit of hedging there.
But what about the food-loving French? Well, the French are not so sure that EFSA is right and has actually banned BPA from all packaging, containers, and utensils intended to be used in direct contact with food from 1 January 2015. Health issues potentially caused by BPA are thus taken much more seriously by the French Government. However, reasonably, there seems to be an allowance exempting packages introduced onto the market before this date to remain until stock is exhausted.
So what is a simple soul to believe? Just following the literature introduces further doubts.
New research findings
It is well-known that BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper as a print developer and can be present in very high quantities of around 20 mg BPA/g paper. Although EFSA’s assessment indeed did include exposure from thermal receipts, a recently published study showed that using hand sanitisers or other skin care products often containing mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals, can increase by up to 100-fold the dermal absorption of BPA. Significant free BPA was also transferred from hands to French fries leading to a rapid and dramatic increase in BPA exposure from the two sources.
There are some previous indications that BPA might be associated with hypertension and decreased heart rate variability. Now, a just published new study confirm without doubt that BPA can acutely increase blood pressure at normal exposure levels. In a randomised crossover trial, 60 non-institutionalised adults aged 60 years and over visited a study site three times, and were provided with the same beverage in two glass bottles, two cans, or one can and one glass bottle at a time. The researchers found that after consuming two canned beverages the systolic blood pressure increased by a statistically significant 4.5 mm Hg compared to consuming two glass bottled beverages and the urinary BPA concentration increased by more than 1,600 per cent.
Don’t expect revolution
Of course those two late studies are not included in the EFSA review, but if they were would they change the conclusions? Not so sure. It seems overwhelming evidence is needed for the scientific experts to change their view. Thus don’t hold your breath, it is unlikely that the final opinion, when published, will change much from the earlier draft.