Sure there is nothing wrong with eating cranberries. Although the same thing could be said of consuming any fruits as they are all considered healthy so there is some competition. That might be the reason why the Cranberry Institute felt obliged to provide funding for two recent studies showing the beneficial effects of cranberry consumption on memory and blood flow.
But can you believe the conclusions of studies tainted by respective industry contributions? Read on so you can judge for yourself.
Cranberries might improve cardiovascular health
The Cranberry Institute provided financial support to a recent clinical trial which found that daily consumption of cranberries for one month improved cardiovascular function in healthy men.
The study included 45 healthy men who consumed 9g of freeze-dried cranberry powder equivalent to a cup of 100g of fresh cranberries per day or a placebo for one month. Incredibly, the study found that those consuming cranberries showed significant improvements in flow-mediated dilation of blood vessels already two hours after first consumption and after one month of daily consumption indicating both immediate and long-term benefits. The researchers claimed that consumption of cranberries as part of a healthy diet can help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by improving blood vessel function.
Sure there is evidence that links polyphenols from berries with heart health benefits. And as it happens, cranberries are rich in unique proanthocyanidins that have distinct properties compared to polyphenols found in some other fruits.
Cranberries might also improve memory
The Cranberry Institute wanted more good news by financially supporting a study investigating the impact of cranberry consumption on memory and brain function. Past studies have shown that higher dietary flavonoid intake is associated with slower rates of cognitive decline and dementia. And foods rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, which give berries their red, blue, or purple colour, have been found to improve cognition.
Thus, the commercially funded research team from the University of East Anglia (UK) investigated the impact of eating cranberries for 12 weeks on brain function and cholesterol among 60 cognitively healthy participants between 50 to 80 years old. Again, half of the participants consumed freeze-dried cranberry powder, equivalent to a cup of 100g of fresh cranberries, daily. The other half consumed a placebo.
The study, one of the first to examine cranberries and their long-term impact on cognition and brain health, showed that consuming cranberries significantly improved memory of everyday events (visual episodic memory), neural functioning and delivery of blood to the brain (brain perfusion).
The cranberry group also exhibited a significant decrease in LDL or ‘bad’ cholesterol levels, known to contribute to the thickening or hardening of the arteries caused by a build-up of plaque. The researchers claimed that the potentially improved vascular health may have in part contributed to the improvement in brain perfusion and cognition.
Of course the researchers considered the findings encouraging, especially as a relatively short 12-week cranberry intervention was able to produce significant improvements in memory and neural function. They see it as an important foundation for future research in the area of cranberries and neurological health.
Ocean Spray Inc. also at it
The U.S. cranberry juice giant, Ocean Spray Inc., has spent millions of dollars funding research to try to prove the health aspects of consuming cranberry juice. There has long been a myth that cranberry juice can prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Back in the day, before antibiotics were a thing, acidification of the urine was a recommended treatment for UTI. It was believed that because cranberries are acidic, they would make urine more acidic to fight off bacteria. This was attributed to formation of hippuric acid through metabolism of the quinic acid present in cranberry juice.
Unfortunately, later studies reported that the concentration of hippuric acid in the urine was insufficient for an antibacterial effect unless very large volumes of cranberry juice were ingested.
Subsequently, proanthocyanidins present in cranberries as well as blueberries were reported to inhibit binding of the type 1 P-fimbriae of Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells, preventing bacterial adherence within the urinary tract.
However, researchers from the University of Manitoba found that the two proposed mechanisms for a beneficial effect of cranberries on UTIs had not yet been shown to have a role in human infection.
EFSA and FDA dismisses cranberry health claims
In 2009, Ocean Spray Inc. submitted a health claim for cranberry juice to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) supported by several scientific studies. However, the EFSA Panel concluded that the evidence provided was not sufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of Ocean Spray cranberry products and the reduction of the risk of UTIs in women by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract.
In 2017, Ocean Spray Cranberries Inc. tried again, this time logging a health claim for cranberry juice with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). After reviewing the petition and other evidence related to the proposed health claim, the FDA determined that the scientific evidence supporting the claim did not meet the “significant scientific agreement” standard required for an authorized health claim. However, at the same time FDA announced that it does not intend to object to the use of certain ‘qualified health claims’ regarding consuming certain cranberry products and a reduced risk of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy women. As long as a qualifying statement was included on the label stating that FDA has concluded that the scientific evidence supporting this claim is limited and inconsistent.
Not looking convincing?
It’s up to you to decide what you think. As I said in the beginning there is nothing wrong in eating cranberries as they would be as healthy as any other berries.
To help you make up your mind here is a quote from the well known nutrition expert Marion Nestle:
“Without even getting into whether cranberry powder is equivalent to cranberries, whether anyone can eat cranberries without adding their weight in sugar, or whether any other fruit might have similar effects, we should ask whether it makes any sense at all to think that any one single food could boost memory and prevent dementia in the elderly.”
So there you have it.